The Advanced Access Content System
AACS is the advanced access content system and a standard for Blu-ray disc and HD DVD distribution and digital rights management.
The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. The specification was publicly released in April 2005 and the standard has been adopted as the access restriction scheme for HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc (BD). It is developed by AACS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Panasonic, Warner Bros., IBM, Toshiba and Sony. AACS has been operating under an "interim agreement" since the final specification (including provisions for Managed Copy) has not yet been finalised.
AACS uses cryptography to control the use of digital media. It encrypts content under one or more title keys using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Title keys are derived from a combination of a media key (encoded in a Media Key Block) and the Volume ID of the media (e.g., a physical serial number embedded on a pre-recorded disc).
Volume IDs are unique identifiers or serial numbers that are stored on pre-recorded discs with special hardware. They cannot be duplicated on consumers' recordable media. The point of this is to prevent simple bit-by-bit copies, since the Volume ID is required (though not sufficient) for decoding content. On Blu-ray discs, the Volume ID is stored in the BD-ROM Mark.
To view the Bluray Disc, the player must first decrypt the content on the disc. The decryption process is somewhat convoluted. The disc contains 4 items-the Media Key Block (MKB), the Volume ID, the Encrypted Title Keys, and the Encrypted Content. The MKB is encrypted in a subset difference tree approach. Essentially, a set of keys are arranged in a tree such that any given key can be used to find every other key except its parent keys. This way, to revoke a given device key, the MKB needs only be encrypted with that device key's parent key.
Once the MKB is decrypted, it provides the Media Key, or the km. The km is combined with the Volume ID (which the program can only get by presenting a cryptographic certificate to the drive, as described above) in a one-way encryption scheme (AES-G) to produce the Volume Unique Key (VUK). The VUK is used to decrypt the encrypted title keys, and that is used to decrypt the encrypted content.
AACS key extractions highlight the inherent weakness in any DRM system that permit software players for PCs to be used for playback of content. No matter how many layers of encryption are employed, it doesn't offer any true protection, since the keys needed to obtain the unencrypted content stream must be available somewhere in memory. The PC platform offers no way to prevent memory snooping attacks on such keys, since a PC configuration can always be emulated by a virtual machine, in theory without any running program or external system being able to detect the virtualization. The only way to wholly prevent attacks like this would require changes to the PC platform which could provide protection against such attacks. This would require that content distributors do not permit their content to be played on PCs without trusted computing technology, by not providing the companies making software players for non-trusted PCs with the needed encryption keys.
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Rom Mark - Anti-copy Protection Measure for Blu-ray
BD+ - The component of the Blu-ray Disc Digital Rights Management system
BD-Live - A New Online Feature on Blu-ray Disc
Bluray to MKV - Rip and Decrypt Blu-ray to MKV while Ignoring AACS
Rip Bluray to iPad - Watch Your Bluray Disc on iPad
Blu-ray Software - Blu-ray Software Free Download, Free Blu ray Software for PC & Mac
Related External Source
Blu-ray Disc - Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format.
AACS - Full Advanced Access Content System Explanation on Wikipedia.
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